Learning Science Through Slowmation WIP

1.1   Description


In Learning Science Through Slowmation (LSTL), understanding science is based on the use of models, representations, and other forms of visualization, in order to explain, clarify, and demonstrate complex or abstract phenomena. Team leaders create digital narratives using the technique of slowmation (2 photographs per second) and “animate” science concepts and phenomena through inspired heroes and their adventures in scripts that they develop, re-contextualizing science teaching and learning. Team leaders use this method to introduce new ways of teaching and communicating science, representing still images, text, sounds, transforming them, and connecting them through this incorporation process. Participants use technology to represent their constructions of science concepts and design and construct narrated slowmation to present their scientific knowledge. Slowmation integrates features from digital storytelling, claymation, object and stop-motion animation and engages participants with scientific concepts in multiple and transformative ways, creating links as a semiotic progression. Participants can create 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional models in a model studio.


 

1.2   Objective


The main aim of the LSTL approach is to give the opportunity for participants to develop a narrative using digital technology and slowmation techniques, to help understand and share specific scientific concepts and knowledge.

The LSTS’s specific objectives are to:

  • Get participants interested in science and research through the use of innovative methods
  • Teach participants how to develop a digital narrative relevant to a scientific topic
  • Initiate contact between participants and other professionals (for example artists)
  • Engage the general public

Moreover, LSTS participants’ needs to:

  • develop abilities and the understanding necessary for scientific inquiry
  • identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations
  • design and constuct narratives relevant to scientific concepts and issues
  • use technology to improve investigations, communications, and the development of slowmation videos
  • initiate their creativity and imagination and create links with science education
  • recognize, analyze and imagine alternative explanations and models
  • communicate a scientific argument or issue in a creative way
  • develop lifelong learning skills
  • develop attitudes befitting a scientific ethos
  • Experience a interconnection between science and aspects of the arts
  • Develop a spirit of cooperation and teamwork
  • Develop digital skills
    • link with science and society in a personal context

     

    1.3   Structure


    General Structure
    The initiative is implemented over a period of 5 months, which includes the required time to create the videos and prepare for the final contest-like event. The participants work closely with the team leader(s) responsible for the project, on a regular basis during these months, following the inquiry framework. The number of meet-ups is up to the participants but in general once a week is suggested.

    In addition, a series of workshops are scheduled by the coordinating & support team, so that the progress of the animations can be monitored and the quality of the final output can be guaranteed. Finally, extra dissemination/promotion activities are to be carried out by the participants, which will bridge the output with the local community.

     

    1.4   Duration



    Main Event Duration: depending on the participating teams
    Project Duration: Several Months

    The main event where the slowmation movie are shown is to occur in front of a large audience and can last for several hours, depending on the teams that participate.
    The period of preparation for the main slowmation movie is 5 months.

    2.1    Staff & Volunteers


    Coordinating staff
    Since the initiative is to be implemented on a large scale and engages several teams, coordinating staff is required to closely monitor the activities. The staff is there to also ensure that the main milestones are reached on time and to facilitate the major event, showcasing all of the slowmation movies.

    Support team
    There is the need for pedagogical, artistic, and scientific expertise to be injected into the activities, thus, input from experts in these fields should be offered to support the work occurring within the participating groups. These experts can be approached either by the coordinating staff or the team leader.

    Team leader
    A person is required to drive the team and support participants in their endeavor. He/she will handle any immediate needs and questions that the participants have and connect with the support team to ensure the best results possible. In case of a major event with many teams, the team leaders will act as a judge for the videos in order to help decide on the awards to be given.

    Dissemination / Promotion team (by the participants)
    Adding to this, the participants are designated to lead dissemination/promotion activities that will provide them with the support of the local community. This kind of support can either be translated into materialized support (sponsors, money, transportation etc), ethical support, or it can be in the form of expertise that will enhance the quality of the slowmation video.

     

    2.2    Venue Hire



    Venue: Theaters
    Capacity: Ideally, the venues for the final event should be theaters with large capacity.

     

    2.3    Partner Institutions



    Partner Institutions: Not required but sometimes recommended

     

     

    2.4    Budget



    Project Budget: up to 26,500

    The materials that participants may use are play dough, coloured cartons, pictures, drawings, existing game models, toys, natural and everyday materials, cutouts etc. Participants use their own still photo camera or mobile phone camera with HD quality to take pictures. They create sounds and produce recordings with their phone recorder or their laptop recorder in order to enhance the explanation of a science concept by adding dialogues, music or natural sounds. Finally, they use their own laptops with movie maker or i-movie software installed to edit the developed digital narrative.

    The project at the teams-level is highly recommended to be self-funded, meaning that the participants will be engaged in approaching contributors for the realization of their performance – the aid can be monetary or provision of materials needed.

    Expected expenses

    • Personnel Fees (coordination and support teams) (Section 2.1) €0 – €10,000
    • Event materials/printing €0 – €2000
      • Four-color brochure with instructions – examples of implementation
      • Brochure leaflet A5 – Announcement / Promotion of Action
      • Schedule of events
      • Poster four-color
      • Roll up banner
      • One-leaf brochure – Events
      • Jury Assessment Forms
      • Participation & jury credentials
      • Awards
    • Publicity, communication & promotion costs (website, radio production, shooting & video
    • production for each show and a general video of the action) €0 – €6,000
    • Travel (to support the action nation-wide) €0 – €2,000
    • Venue €0 – €1,500
    • Catering (workshops & event) €0 – €2,000
    • Transport groups of participants at the venues of the final events €0 – €2,500
    • Expenditure on rental and technical maintenance of venue for the event €0 – €3,000

    3.1   Target Audience


    Direct Audience: There are no restraints in the age frame; however, it is suggested that the participants within the team are around the same age so that the dynamics of the working group are optimal and the activities follow a smooth pace that everyone can follow.

    Indirect Audience: General audience, which participate as viewers in the final events or may be supporters of the whole procedure by contributing in any means possible.

     

    3.2   Marketing


    The dissemination activities will be run in a two scale front – by the coordinating team and by the participating teams as well.

    1. Project dissemination:

    2. The coordinating team will be in charge of the general dissemination following two phases:

      a) Targeted dissemination phase: enrichment of the project’s website with news articles; publish a number of newsletters and brochures; and present preliminary the work that is being done (e.g. highlights from the working groups meetings or performances trailers) to target audiences.

      b) Outreach phase: this represents the period closely before the final event, when partners will start finalizing their performance. This phase will be focused on informing the target audience through utilizing all means possible for disseminating the event.

    3. Slowmation movies dissemination

    4. The dissemination of the slowmation movie at a local level is meant to be run by participants. That means that no money is needed for personnel and also that the success lies in the fact that the participants bound to the local community can easily utilize their links to achieve the most optimal outreach.

     

    3.3   Dialogic Strategy


    The Learning Science Through Slowmation initiative lies in the compendium of art and science. It is exactly the marriage of these two that gives off an effective way of communicating scientific concepts in the most entertaining way. By targeting an audience and striving to perform successfully, the output – the scientific knowledge approached – is transformed into a communicative means of spreading scientific literature. The scientific concept is guaranteed by the experts that overview the activity and the artistic elements give new communicational dimensions.

    4.1   Project Timeline


    Timetable for managing a large scale event:

    • M1 – M4: Registrations
    • M2: 1st educational workshop for team leaders
    • M3: 2nd educational workshop for team leaders – Teams informed about the days and time of preparing the activity – Announcement of the venues for the final events
    • M4: 3rd educational workshop for team leaders (online)* – participants provide information about difficulties in participating the final events
    • M4 – M5: Collaboration with the specialists’ team (pedagogical – artistic support)
    • M5: 4th educational workshop for team leaders (online)*
    • M6: Finalization of the event organisation
    • M7: Final event with slowmation movie contest

    Implementation of milestones:

    • M4: End of registrations
    • M5: Judges registration
    • M5: Filling in of the observation form (1st time)
    • M6: Deadline for submitting the required documents (final script, contributors form, report of promotion actions etc)
    • M6: Sending of the participants consent forms for the recording during the final events.
    • M6: Sending of the contributors form and the final script for the teams that participate in the events.
    • M7: Submission of the report of the promotion actions for the performances
    • M7: final event – Awards
    • M8: Deliver of the observation form (2nd time) & form of Assessing the activity

     

    4.2   Single Event Structure

    i) Workshops
    Structure of the workshops to be implemented for training the team leaders:

    Duration Thematics
    15 mins
    • Introduction and presentation of the initiative “Learning Science Through Slowmation
    15 mins
    • Pedagogical framework
    45 mins
    • Hands on – creativity and inquiry activities
    10 mins
    • Break
    80 mins
    • Implementation roadmap, regulations and specifications – (20’)
      Pedagogic aspects – (20’)
      Artistic aspects– (40’)
    10 mins
    • Break
    10 mins
    • Dissemination, promotion and outreach
    15 mins
    • Team leaders web community
    30 mins
    • Questions – Discussion

    ii) Team meetings – the roadmap:
    Participants will:

    Month 1: Develop interest in engaging with scientific topics and slowmation production techniques. They form a general group, depending on their interest in participating in the project. They search the internet to find relevant information about the scientific topic/issue they have chosen.

    Months 2-3: Acquire a deeper understanding of the topics examined and come up with a basic theatrical script. Together with their group members, they will make a plan elaborating on the preparation of the slowmation video production and split into subgroups. They form stories/scenarios based on scientific findings and work on possible scripts and the structure of the production.

    Month 4: Contact the professionals to discuss their script, music and direction. They become aware of what it’s like to work creatively, using their imagination and their findings in order to compose innovative theatrical performances. They explore alternative solutions and creative ways to express their arguments.

    Month 5: Finalise their production one month before the final Event.

    Assessment
    Participants are engaged in inter-workgroup assessment processes throughout the preparation phase. They define the assessment criteria that instigates the reflection processes, engaging members of the same group to strengthen their arguments.

    Differentiation
    The LSTS approach is based on the respect for participants’ needs and interests as a cornerstone for its successful realisation. The selection of the main topic and the exploration of relevant issues depend on participants. During the inquiry phase all participants will participate and contribute with relevance to their required data.

    Key Concepts and Terminology
    Science terminology:
    Maths, Geometry, Physics, Newtonian physics, nuclear physics, astronomy, big bang theory, biology, criminology

    Arts terminology:
    Direction, script, music, video editing.

    Sessions’ Objectives
    During the sessions, participants will deepen their understanding of scientific concepts and phenomena, using their creativity and imagination.

    Phase 1: QUESTION – participants investigate a scientifically oriented question

    Features
    • Participants pose, select, or are given a scientifically oriented question to investigate. Balance and navigation through dialogue aids team leaders and participants in creatively navigating educational tensions, including between open and structured approaches to IBSE. Questions may arise through dialogue between participants’ scientific knowledge and the scientific knowledge of professional scientists and science team leaders, or through dialogue with different ways of knowledge inspired by interdisciplinarity and personal, embodied learning. Ethics and trusteeship is an important consideration in experimental design and collaborative work, as well as in the initial choice of question.
    Participant
    • At this stage participants decide upon a basic, scientifically oriented question which they wish to explore through the LSTS activity. This happens in dialogue with the team leader.
    Team Leader
    • The team leader and the participants choose a chapter / module from the curriculum that has open questions concerning the understanding of certain science concepts. Questions are triggered by the team leader and the participants. Gradually, the participants take over the initiative and finally lead to the subject that will eventually be explored through slowmation and presented in an original digital narrative.

      At this stage, the team leader can introduce other developed examples of science concepts represented in existing slowmation videos. A short introduction to the making of slowmation is also given. Examples can be found on the atlas movies channel on YouTube.

    Potential Arts Activity
    • Team and warm- up activities

    Phase 2: EVIDENCE – participants give priority to evidence

    Features
    • Participants work in groups, search for information and include it in the initial storyboard for the narrative that they develop. Participants determine or are guided to evidence/data, which may come from an individual, collaborative and communal activity such as practical work, or from sources such as data from the professional scientific activity or from other contexts. Risk, immersion and play is crucial in empowering participants to generate, question and discuss evidence.
    Participant
    • Participants work in groups and search the web for information on the chosen question / topic. Participants use their imagination and creativity to incorporate this information in the initial storyboard for the digital narrative they are going to develop with the slowmation technique.
    Team Leader
    • The team leader ensures that all participants have access to information on the exploratory question, whether via the internet or through printed materials. The team leader helps participants search and collect the necessary information. This information is used in order to make a storyboard, that is, a comic version of the slowmation to be developed. The team leader guides participants to fold a piece of paper in half, then half again. When participants open it, they have a four frame comic. They add more paper as needed and make sure they number each frame in order of sequence. The drawing of a storyboard does not have to be artistic in any sense of the word, but each frame must be able to convey what is moving or what has changed.
    Potential Arts Activity
    • N/A

    Phase 3: ANALYSE – participants analyse evidence

    Features
    • Participants analyse evidence, using dialogue with each other and the team leader to support their developing understanding.
    Participant
    • At this stage, participants analyze and categorize the data they have collected. Participants get to recreate what is in each frame of their storyboard on paper or cardboard. They create versions of scenarios in groups and afterwards, through discussion, merge the various versions into one.
    Team Leader
    • The team leader functions more as a facilitator, splitting the responsibility up between each group member so each participant in the group has a task to do. Participants work in groups and each group develops a version of the scenario for slowmation including the data collected. The team leader encourages participants to express their ideas and facilitates the merging of the group scenarios into one main scenario for the slowmation to be developed.
    Potential Arts Activity
    • Creation of basic theatrical scripts and improvised theatrical performances.

    Phase 4: EXPLAIN – participants formulate an explanation based on evidence

    Features
    • Participants use evidence they have generated and analysed to consider possibilities for explanations that are original to them. They use argumentation and dialogue to decide on the relative merits of the explanations they formulate, playing with ideas.
    Participant
    • Participants get to recreate what is in each frame of their storyboard using paper, cardboard, paints, play dough, clay or other 3D constructions. They may use 3D props such as dolls, action figures, toys (cars, trucks, human or animal figures), plants, seeds, soil, natural material etc. They put and adjust their props in mini studios created by empty paper boxes. The possibilities are endless! Before the participants start making or collecting props, they should go through their storyboard and make a list of everything they need. Meanwhile, participants discuss basic explanations and procedures related to the science concepts presented in their slowmation and answer scientific questions that are provoked by the development of the scenery and the heroes of their narrative.
    Team Leader
    • The team leader functions more as a facilitator, helping participants to work in groups in order to prepare the props, the background and the heroes of their slowmation. At the same time he/she coordinates participants’ discussions as all their unanswered questions are brought forward as they attempt this first visualization of the abstract science concepts.
    Potential Arts Activity
    • N/A

    Phase 5: CONNECT – participants connect explanations to scientific knowledge

    Features
    • Participants connect their explanations with scientific knowledge, using different ways of thinking and knowing (‘knowing that’, ‘knowing how’, and ‘knowing this’) to relate their ideas to both disciplinary knowledge and to interdisciplinary knowledge to understand the origin of their ideas and reflect on the strength of their evidence and explanations in relation to the original question.
    Participant
    • Participants do the video-shooting, keeping in mind the final video quality. Participants are encouraged to do their best with framing and focusing during the shooting and at the same time, express their artistic expectations. Once the first scene is ready, the first photos are taken. It is crucial that participants do not move the camera/smartphone, the background, and props that are not moving in the next shot. If a participant bumps the background half a millimeter, then it can have a detrimental effect on the final product. A good way to avoid this is to glue or tape down anything that is not supposed to move. The heroes that move in the scene, are photographed in a series of photos each one presenting a tiny movement. Once the first scene is shot, participants move or add the props according to the storyboard of the next scene. Participants repeat the process until the end of the movie. Participants can then quickly look through their photos in the viewfinder of the camera to see how the final product will turn out. Just by flicking through the photos, they can see if there are any mistakes that need to be corrected by taking some more photos. At the same time, participants record voices and sounds trying to have the best possible sound quality. During this phase, the abstract science concepts acquire form and shape, sound, and meaning by the participants.
    Team Leader
    • The team leader explains that in order to create the slowmation video, participants need to take 2 photos for every second of their digital narrative. The team leader asks them to work out how many photos are needed for a slowmation video that has 1 minute duration. It works out to be 120! The team leader gives tips on how to keep the camera or the smartphone steady in order to enhance the video quality. Again, here the team leader plays the role of facilitator and coordinator guiding participants to set up the camera on the tripod and have all the props ready. The team leader guides the participants as they take photos (how to set up the first scene in the viewfinder of the camera, how to use the tripod in the shoot, how to be careful of their own shadows, etc.). The team leader also helps participants to record voices and sounds. Many sounds may be imaginatively recreated by participants under the team leader’s instructions.
    Potential Arts Activity
    • Ιnterdisciplinary activities (science and art activities) that include the creation of the final theatrical script, background music, scenery and costumes, choreography, potential video editing etc.

    Phase 6:
    COMMUNICATE – participants communicate and justify explanation

    Features
    • Communication of possibilities, ideas and justifications through dialogue with other participants, with the science team leaders, and with professional scientists, offer participants the chance to test their new knowledge and be immersed in a key part of the scientific process. Such communication is crucial to an ethical approach to working scientifically.
    Participant
    • Participants communicate science concepts as they edit their slowmation videos using images and sounds to animate. They discuss the ideas presented in their slowmarion and the image of science that will be reflected in their slowmation when it is released on the web (YouTube channel, CASE website). In this phase, participants go through the following steps:
      STEP 1 – Participants collect each photo for their animation on a computer and they start creating their movie. If they use an IOS device, they can connect it to the computer using the cable to upload the pictures.
      STEP 2 – They open I-movie or Windows Movie Maker. They select the tab ‘home’.
      STEP 3 – Participants select and drag all photos at once, go and drop them to the storyboard pane of the moviemaker home window. This creates a slideshow with each picture on a separate slide.
      STEP 4 –Participants need to set the rhythm of the photos at 2 photos per second. In order to do that they change the duration of each photo to 0.5 seconds.
      STEP 5 – Participants add text in their slowmation in three ways: a) If they select ‘Title’, they may add text into a new blank background frame imported as an opening title. b) If the select ‘Caption’, they add text over a video or a photo imported on the storyboard pane. c) If they select ‘Credits’ they add at the end of the movie automatically the credits that are necessary.
      Whenever a clip with text is selected, a new menu emerges over the top: ‘text tools’ giving options to animate text and change fonts, sizes.
      STEP 6 – Participants elaborate recorded sounds, music and narration on the audacity software.
      STEP 7 – Participants add the final elaborated sound recordings to the Movie Maker software in their slowmation and combine image and sound editing.
      STEP 8 – Participants save their slowmation project in the form of a movie in MP4 file.
    Team Leader
    • The team leader acts as facilitator and coordinator guiding participants to use a movie maker software. The team leader helps participants upload photos and sounds on the computer, helping the participants direct and develop their slowmation. The team leader guides the participants to use the audio software on their computer, and smart voice recorder app on their smartphones, further facilitating the participants to work on sound editing.
    Potential Arts Activity
    • Rehearsals of participants’ theatrical performances and final science theater performances.

    Phase 7:
    REFLECT – participants reflect on the inquiry process and their learning

    Features
    • Individual, collaborative and community-based reflective activity for change both consolidates learning and enables participants and team leaders to balance educational tensions such as that between open-ended inquiry learning and the curriculum and assessment requirements of education.
    Participant
    • Participants present and share their slowmation movie, discussing their attempt to visualize abstract science concepts. They make comments to each other and receive feedback by their guests at the open screening. Participants receive awards for their work, have discussions with artists and scientists on the realization of science phenomena. Later, in a meeting with the team leader, they reflect on how this learning approach has helped their understanding of science.
    Team Leader
    • The slowmation movie produced by the participants is presented to a large audience. A discussion follows with participants and questions reflecting on the produced slowmation and the way science is communicated. Later on the team leader speaks with participants about their reflections on how this learning approach has helped them understand the meaning of science concepts. The participants may also make proposals on how the school curriculum could be informed and improved based on their experience.
    Potential Arts Activity
    • Rehearsals of participants’ theatrical performances and final science theater performances.

    iii) Performances: all the way to the major event

    Team leaders and participants are called to decide upon the actions they will include in their activity and then elaborate the roles and responsibilities. Every team can take up and implement some (if not all) of the actions related to the shooting and development of a slowmation movie. It is recommended that the participants are divided in working groups according to the activities they want to be involved in.

    The participants, according to their interests, can participate in more than one team. At the end of the activity, every team in collaboration with the responsible team leaders will be called to submit a document outlining the contributors of the performance, as well as a report describing all the promoting actions the team implemented. Also, the team leaders during two stages of the activity will be called to fill in the observation form. This is about the capturing – writing down their experience since the first moment of the activity, describing how the scientific concepts were represented, what techniques were used, examples that highlighted the creativity (imagination, innovation, originality). Such a document is especially important for the scientific/pedagogical assessment of the whole process.

    During the activity, the organizing team and special collaborators (scientists as well as directors/musicians/dancers) will observe the process and provide valuable support to the participants in the form of:
    Team visits
    Online meetings
    Workshops for team leaders and participants

    The support is about the pedagogical part of the activity and the script that will be developed as well as the directing/artistic part and will go on up to 2 weeks before the final event.

    When the team leaders finalize the days and hours in which they will engage with the participants for the activity, the organizing team must be informed so that the team visits and the online meetings can be scheduled for every team.

    The events: Preparation
    1 month before the final event, the specifications of the venue (size, visual and sound equipment etc) will be announced. Important clarification: In case of a team using audiovisual material from the internet, the license of use should be checked.

    After contacting all responsible team leaders, the programme of the events will be announced. In order for these to be finalized, 2 months before the final events the teams will be informed about the hours of running them (eg Saturday 11.00-17.00, Sunday 12.00-16.00) and asked to register if any difficulties occur in their participation at the time and day of their performance so that arrangements will be made. The final program will be concluded after reviewing the above.
    From there on, no further changes will be made.

    Finally, it should be noted that because of the final events being recorded, a special form of consent should be sent prior to the event to all participating teams, and must be signed by the parents of the participating participants.

    The events: realizing
    The duration of each event is 2 days. The exact time will be set according to the number of the participating teams as well as the duration of the slowmation movies. It will be open to the public to watch. Participants and team leaders must arrive to the venue at the time indicated to them by the organizers. Every team can watch all the videos of the event, both days.

     

    4.3   Personnel roles

    1. Personnel required for a workshop with team leaders:
    The coordination and the support teams are needed to fully attend the workshops with the leaders in order to set the landscape for a fruitful collaboration. They both will present their part regarding the initiative implementation – the coordination team for the whole organization and the timetable, the support team their expertise’s input.

    2. Personnel required for the slowmation movie contest event:

    • 1 person as secretary
    • 1 presenter
    • 1 technician
    • 1 person for collecting the grading sheets and collating the results for deciding the awards

     

    4.4   Materials


    The material needed to be reserved by the coordinating team mainly refers to the technical equipment such as beamer, PCs or laptops, etc.


    Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE) is a method of teaching and learning that focuses on use of questions, problems, and educational scenarios used to engage participants in concepts of science and support their acquisition of scientific knowledge and skills. This is achieved through their active participation in activities that make sense to the participants, chiefly due to the fact that they are largely initiated by participants themselves. They understand in-depth the scientific concepts through their own perception of the world that surrounds them and through their own experiences and reflective processes. In LSTS science and the arts are intertwined. The interaction between these fields within IBSE requires creative solutions and initiates interest and better understanding of scientific concepts.

    The slowmation movies are evaluated by an evaluation panel of academics, science team leaders, directors, musicians (50%) and 1 team leader and 1 participant from team (50%). Awards for different categories are given to the teams. These include:

    • Best Movie
    • Best Scenario
    • Best Direction
    • Best Soundtrack

    Both quantitative and qualitative data are required to assess participants’ and team leaders’ cognitive and creative development through the implementation of the LSTS.
    For quantitative assessment we recommend the use of the ‘Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II)’ (Glynn, et al., 2011; Maximiliane, Schumm, Bogner, 2016) that is addressed to participants and the ‘VALNET’ questionnaire addressed to team leaders.

    Regarding qualitative assessment, each group of participants will be provided with a questionnaire that includes questions about their level of enjoyment, comparisons to more traditional teaching methods, etc. More specifically, since “Entertainment” is an important part of a movie, it is worth mentioning that participants will retain their interest throughout and will enjoy the whole procedure (Smyrnaiou Z., Sotiriou M., Georgakopoulou E., Papadopoulou E., 2016).

    The questionnaire will also include questions regarding: a) representation of scientific content/generation of meaning, b) communication between participants, c) entertainment of the audience.

    Each group of participants will be expected to conduct a report about their experience from the first moment of involvement until the implementation of the action, recording on how they represented scientific concepts, what theater techniques they used, significant episodes that demonstrated their creativity (imagination, innovation, uniqueness), their improvisation and also some significant moves (embodied movements) that they used for the representation of scientific knowledge. Team leaders are expected to fill an observation rubric, which is significantly important about the scientific and pedagogical evaluation of the whole procedure. This rubric includes the following questions:
    What was the starting point for writing the script? Did you use an existing script? Did you start from the slowmation techniques or from the scientific content? Describe.

    Record two or three important events that demonstrate the creativity of the participants (the concept of creativity is associated with imagination, originality, innovation).

    Outline the participants’ cognitive path/process, indicating 2-3 examples in each category:

    1. Initial ideas that remained constant
    2. Initial ideas that evolved
    3. Initial ideas that were rejected
    4. Important ideas that arose along with the action

    Were there any points where participants self-corrected the way that they would represent the concept?
    Were there any points where participants improvised? Indicate 2-3 important examples where participants deviated from what was agreed, but the final result was equally excellent.

    The above rubric is then expected to be analysed using qualitative methodologies, resulting in three different categories of analysis:
    The category of “Representation of scientific context/ meaning generation”
    The category of “Communication
    The category of “Entertainment”
    (Smyrnaiou Z., Sotiriou M., Georgakopoulou E., Papadopoulou E., 2016)

    Finally, the scenarios are expected to be observed by a scientist and an artist, who will then analyze the data collected from their observation .

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    Seroglou, F., Triantafyllou, G., Ghirxi, D., & Styles, C. (2020, August 27). Learning Science Through Slowmation. Retrieved from http://steamexperiments.com/activity/learning-science-through-slowmation/

    First published: August 27, 2020
    Last modified: August 27, 2020